Caregiving processes and expressed emotion in psychosis, a cross-cultural, meta-analytic review.

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Caregiving processes and expressed emotion in psychosis, a cross-cultural, meta-analytic review.

Schizophr Res. 2019 Apr 23;:

Authors: O'Driscoll C, Sener SB, Angmark A, Shaikh M

Abstract
The construct of Expressed Emotion (EE) is a reliable predictor of relapse in psychotic disorders globally. However, cultural differences in the level and manifestation of EE have been reported. This review was conducted in line with PRISMA guidelines to demonstrate the distribution of EE and its domains cross-culturally as well as its relationship with relapse in psychosis. Ninety-six studies reported global EE scores and/or separate EE domains amongst caregivers of a family member with psychosis and used the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) to measure EE. In the meta-analysis (k = 34, n = 1982), exposure to high EE was indicative of a 95% increased likelihood of relapse compared to low EE. However, no significant effect of geographical region on global EE scores (high/low) or EE domains was found. Several adjustments to the scoring of the CFI were highlighted based on cultural norms, particularly relevant to the domains of emotional over-involvement, warmth and criticism. Although this made meaningful quantitative comparisons across studies difficult, it nonetheless highlighted cultural considerations that need to be taken into account when interpreting EE and understanding its relationship to clinical outcomes. There is not a universal normative EE experience, with cultural variation in the scoring and interpretation of EE existing as evidenced by adjusted cut off scores and conceptualisation of EE constructs. Thus, it is important for clinical practitioners to have an awareness of different cultural norms in relation to caregiving and care receiving behaviours, which can inform adaptations to clinical interventions in multicultural settings.

PMID: 31028000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]