[The cognitive paradigm in the rehabilitation of schizophrenia – focusing on cognitive remediation].

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[The cognitive paradigm in the rehabilitation of schizophrenia - focusing on cognitive remediation].

Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2015 Sep;17(3):129-140

Authors: Muth V, Gyure T, Varadi E

Neurocognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia and well known to the specialists, concerning researches in Hungary as well. Significance of the topic derives from the fact that according to our present knowledge this is the prime symptom principally affecting everyday functioning and limits benefit of rehabilitation opportunities. The classic psychiatric rehabilitation toolset, either pharmacological or psychosocial, does not provide effective and specific assistance to alleviate the symptoms of the neurocognitive deficits. Despite the increasing presence of the neurocognitive-oriented rehabilitation in international publications and professional forums, cognitive development is rather neglected topic in the Hungarian literature; while the therapeutic practice - with the exception of one institution - is absent from the repertoire of the Hungarian rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is the multi-faceted presentation of recent results in the field of the cognitive remediation, describing the position of cognitive training and its place in the rehabilitation of schizophrenia, with the aim to gain reputation and promote clinical practice among the Hungarian experts. Cognitive remediation is a behavioral training, based on learning theory, with the aim of extensive and long-lasting improvement of cognitive functions of patients suffering from schizophrenia or other mental disorders. Despite the deceptively similar acronym it is important to distinguish this method from the cognitive behavioral therapy which shows similarity in its learning theory basis, but remediation involves much more educational features. Cognitive remediation is not a unified technique, different settings are known, but regardless of form factors it clearly has a specific and positive effect on the neurocognitive functions. It fits well into the rehabilitation methodology, in fact this embeddedness significantly increases its effectiveness and supports emergence of skills in everyday functioning, helping improving disorder outcomes. The generalizing process is partly related to the fact that with the improvement of patients' neurocognitive functions, they become "more accessible" in other therapeutic modalities, increasing their efficiency. Functional and structural changes in relevant cerebral fields correlating with improving neurocognitive performance is proven by growing number of imaging techniques. In addition cost efficiency considerations also support the applicability of the method, which adaptations - in terms of cognitive paradigm - were used in other psychiatric disorders with promising results.

PMID: 26485743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]