Switching from clozapine to paliperidone palmitate-3-monthly improved obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia lowering antipsychotic dose equivalents in a treatment-resistant schizophrenia cohort.

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Switching from clozapine to paliperidone palmitate-3-monthly improved obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia lowering antipsychotic dose equivalents in a treatment-resistant schizophrenia cohort.

Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2019 Dec 17;:

Authors: Martínez-Andrés JA, García-Carmona JA

Abstract
Clozapine, an antipsychotic developed in 1958, is considered the gold standard and the treatment of choice in treatment-resistant schizophrenia despite its side effects and despite 40-70% of these patients not responding to clozapine. In the last decade, new antipsychotics, such as paliperidone palmitate (PP), have emerged as well as its long acting-injectable (LAI) formulations, available as PP-1-monthly (PP1M) and the newest PP-3-montlhy (PP3M). Despite paliperidone having shown a similar efficacy as others antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia, and that PP3M has been shown to reduce relapses compared to oral formulations, no study has been carried out in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The aim of our study was to carry out an exploratory evaluation of endocrine and hepatic profiles as well as the concomitant treatments associated to PP3M vs. clozapine, the gold standard, in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. We designed a retrospective study. A total number of 33 patients previously diagnosed as schizophrenics treatment-resistant, who were prescribed clozapine followed by PP1M and PP3M when available, were selected. Demographic data, BMI, hepatic enzymes (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)], thyroid function (thyroid stimulating hormone), blood platelets and both white and red blood cells as well as the use of concomitant antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and biperiden were compared under treatment with clozapine and PP3M. Antipsychotics and benzodiazepines dosages were compared using by the defined daily dose (DDD) method and haloperidol or diazepam dose equivalents. All statistical analyses were performed using the paired Student t-test for repeated measures. Our data showed that patients under treatment with PP3M showed a significant decrease in BMI (P < 0.01), glucose (P < 0.01), cholesterol (P < 0.05) and triglycerides (P < 0.01) when compared with basal values under treatment with clozapine. Hepatic cholestasis enzyme, GGT, were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) under treatment with clozapine when compared to PP3M. Switching clozapine to PP3M led to a significant lower pharmacological exposure to antipsychotics, by both the DDD (P < 0.05) and haloperidol dose equivalents (P < 0.001) methods without increasing the dose of benzodiazepines while biperiden was more used under PP3M. Finally, antipsychotic monotherapy was higher and less polypharmacy was used with PP3M. In conclusion, our findings suggest that switching clozapine to PP3M improved endocrine and hepatic profile with a lower total exposure to antipsychotics. More studies are needed to truly establish the role of PP3M in treatment-resistant schizophrenia and should be compared against clozapine by using clinical trials.

PMID: 31851035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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