Neurocognitive subtypes of schizophrenia.

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Neurocognitive subtypes of schizophrenia.

Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2015 May;43(3):80-90

Authors: Rangel A, Muñoz C, Ocampo MV, Quintero C, Escobar M, Botero S, Marín C, Jaramillo LE, Sánchez R, Rodríguez-Losada J, Ospina-Duque J, Palacio C, C Arango J, Valencia AV, Aguirre-Acevedo DC, García J

OBJECTIVE: To empirically identify schizophrenia neurocognitive subtypes and establish their association with clinical characteristics.
METHODS: Sustained attention, executive function, facial emotion recognition, verbal learning, and working memory tests were applied to 253 subjects with schizophrenia. We identified neurocognitive subtypes by a latent class analysis of the tests results. After, we made a search for the association of these subtypes with clinic characteristics.
RESULTS: We identified four neurocognitive subtypes: 1) “Global cognitive deficit”, 2) “Memory and executive function deficit”, 3) “Memory and facial emotion recognition deficit,” and 4) “Without cognitive deficit.” In comparison with the subtype “without cognitive deficit,” we found that the “memory and executive function deficit subtype” and the “global cognitive deficit subtype” had a higher frequency of male, unemployed, severe impairment, and adherence to treatment participants. However, in the “global cognitive deficit subtype” the differences were higher and there was also a lower frequency of past major depressive episodes (OR 0.39; 95%CI: 0.16 to 0.97). The “memory and facial recognition deficit subtype” had a higher probability of severe impairment (OR 5.52; 95%CI: 1.89 to 16.14) and unemployed (OR 2.43; 95%CI: 1.06 to 5.55) participants, but also a lower probability of past depressive episodes (OR 0.21; 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.66).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the existence of four neurocognitive subtypes in schizophrenia with a spectrum of dysfunction and severity. We found higher dysfunction in those with worse cognitive dysfunction, and higher affective psychopathology and less treatment adherence in those with less cognitive dysfunction.

PMID: 25999155 [PubMed - in process]