Two-year prospective case-controlled study of a case management program for community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia.

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Two-year prospective case-controlled study of a case management program for community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia.

Shanghai Arch Psychiatry. 2014 Jun;26(3):119-128

Authors: Chen M, Wu G, Wang Z, Yan J, Zhou J, Ding Y, Jiang Y, Rao S, Zhou Q, Ni H, Zhao J, Su Y, Hu J, Zhang Y, Yi Z, Yang W, Song L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: A community-based rehabilitation program is an essential element of the comprehensive treatment of individuals with schizophrenia.
OBJECTIVE: Assess the long-term effects of a community-based case management program for providing rehabilitations services to individuals with schizophrenia.
METHODS: A total of 730 community-residing participants who met ICD-10 diagnostic criteriafor schizophrenia were enrolled, 380 in the case management group and 350 in the control group from two districts in Shanghai. Case management involved monthly training visits with patients and their co-resident family members that focused on encouraging medication adherence. Participants were assessed every three months for 24 months with the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), WHO-Disability Assessment Scale (WHO-DAS), and the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS). Level of discomfort due to side-effects was also assessed every three months. Individuals who discontinued their antipsychotic medication without physician approval for one month or longer at any time during follow-up were classified as 'self-determined medication discontinuation'.
RESULTS: Compared to the treatment as usual group (i.e., follow-up management every 3 months), by the end of the two-year follow-up those who participated in the case management program had significantly lower rates of medication discontinuation, significantly less severe negative symptoms, lower relapse rates and lower rehospitalization rates. Other factors that had an independent effect on discontinuation of medication included educational level (those with more education had higher discontinuation rates), lack of family supervision of medication, higher dosages of medication, and greater medication-related discomfort.
CONCLUSIONS: Case management is a feasible and effective long-term method for improving the rehabilitation outcomes of community residents with schizophrenia. Our results highlight the need to involve family members in the management of patients' medication, to use the minimum effective dosage of medication, and to aggressively manage all side-effects.

PMID: 25114486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]