Achieving Smoking Cessation in Individuals with Schizophrenia: Special Considerations.

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Achieving Smoking Cessation in Individuals with Schizophrenia: Special Considerations.

CNS Drugs. 2017 May 26;:

Authors: Cather C, Pachas GN, Cieslak KM, Evins AE

Abstract
Premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease in those with schizophrenia is the largest lifespan disparity in the US and is growing; adults in the US with schizophrenia die, on average, 28 years earlier than those in the general population. The rate of smoking prevalence among individuals with schizophrenia is estimated to be from 64 to 79%. Smokers with schizophrenia have historically been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies. However, converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with schizophrenia want to quit smoking, and that available pharmacotherapeutic smoking cessation aids are well tolerated by this population of smokers and are effective when combined with behavioral treatment. The aim of this review is to present updated evidence for safety and efficacy of smoking cessation interventions for those with schizophrenia spectrum illness. We also highlight implications of the very low abstinence rates for smokers with schizophrenia who receive placebo plus behavioral treatment in randomized trials, and review treatment approaches to address the high rate of rapid relapse observed upon pharmacologic treatment discontinuation in this population. Recommendations for monitoring for treatment-emergent nicotine withdrawal symptoms, side effects, and effects of cessation on antipsychotic medication are also provided. Smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorders should be encouraged to quit smoking and should receive varenicline, bupropion with or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or NRT, all in combination with behavioral treatment for at least 12 weeks. Maintenance pharmacotherapy may reduce relapse and improve sustained abstinence rates. Controlled trials in smokers with schizophrenia consistently show no greater rate of neuropsychiatric adverse events with pharmacotherapeutic cessation aids than with placebo.

PMID: 28550660 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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